This page lists appropriate references for
calculations done with Perple_**X**. While
Perple_**X** is generally cited correctly, it is
not uncommon that Perple_**X** is cited
inappropriately as a source for thermodynamic data or solution models. Such
inappropriate citations are unfortunate because they make it difficult to
reproduce published calculations and because they do not acknowledge the work
done by the authors or collators of the data. I urge users to cite the sources
for the thermodynamic data and solution models used in any published
calculations.

These references are relevant for
particular types of Perple_**X** calculations as indicated by the annotation. Full
references and links are listed below in the bibliography.

**Connolly (1990)** - describes the calculation of mixed-variable diagrams and Schreinemakers projections.
This reference also reviews phase diagram terminology (see also the appendix of
Connolly & Petrini 2002) and explains the distinctions among thermodynamic,
saturated phase, and saturated components. This reference is appropriate for calculations
made with CONVEX.

**Connolly (2005)** - describes the gridded minimization strategy and the use of
linear programming for optimization, which was introduced into the program in
2001. This reference is appropriate for calculations made in VERTEX.

**Connolly (2009)** - describes the adaptive optimization algorithm introduced in Perple_**X** 07
and currently used in Perple_**X**
6.6.6+.
This reference is appropriate for calculations made in VERTEX and MEEMUM. This paper
also has a better statement of the optimization problem than given in prior Perple_**X**
papers.

**Connolly & Galvez (2018)** -
describes the lagged speciation algorithm for electrolytic fluids.

**Connolly & Kerrick (1987)** - describes a strategy for defining the minimum free
energy surface of a system as a function of its composition using a piecewise
linear approximation (pseudocompounds) for the free energy surfaces of the
system's possible phases. This strategy, as currently implemented in CONVEX, has
been simplified and generalized for an arbitrary number of thermodynamic
components.

**Connolly & Petrini (2002)** - describes the calculation of isochemical phase
diagram sections using Perple_**X**'s original
optimization strategy for unconstrained free energy minimization (Connolly &
Kerrick 1987). The algorithm described here was eliminated from Perple_**X**
in 2006.

Thermodynamic data file references and notation are summarized at thermodynamic_data_files. Sources for data files that are not listed can usually be found within the header section of the data file.

Solution model references and notation are summarized in the solution model glossary. The sources for models not listed in the glossary can usually be found in the comments within the relevant solution model file.

Connolly JAD
(1990) Multivariable phase-diagrams - an
algorithm based on generalized thermodynamics. American Journal of Science
**290**:666-718. (Errata)

Connolly JAD
(2005) Computation of phase equilibria by
linear programming: A tool for geodynamic modeling and its application to
subduction zone decarbonation. Earth and Planetary Science Letters **236**:524-541.
(Errata)

Connolly JAD
(2009) The geodynamic equation of state:
what and how. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems **10**:Q10014
DOI:10.1029/2009GC002540.

Connolly JAD, Galvez ME (2018) Electrolytic fluid speciation by Gibbs energy minimization and implications for subduction zone mass transfer. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 501:90-102 doi:10.1016/ j.epsl.2018.08.024

Connolly JAD, Kerrick DM (1987) An algorithm and computer program for calculating composition phase diagrams. CALPHAD 11:1-55

Connolly JAD, Petrini K (2002) An automated strategy
for calculation of phase diagram sections and retrieval of rock properties as a
function of physical conditions. Journal of Metamorphic Petrology **20**:697-708.
(Errata)

More Perple_**X**
papers.